474 Health Psychology

IN PERSON CLASS ONLY - Class Course Outline (Fall 2019) so far...
('on-line' class follows a different format)

I. Introduction to Health Psychology (Chapter 1 of Taylor + Lecture)
   A) Overview of the Field
   B) Biopsychosocial Model of Health
   C) Methods in Health Psychology

II. Fields Related to Health Psychology (Lecture only)
   A) Medical Sociology
      1) Macro/Meso/Micro level of analysis
      2) Disease = biomedical problem seen thru a Social Lens
      3) Social Construction of Disease
         [Medicalization of Deviant Behavior/Expert Control, etc.]
         a) Hyperkinesis (now ADHD)
         b) Menopause and hormone replacement therapy
         c) Black lung (mentioned)
      4) Parsons and the Sick Role
    B) Public Health
       1) The Idealist, Being Robin Hood, being cunning
       2) Brief History of Public Health (1869 1st State Health Dept. in Mass.; garbarge disposal in NYC 200 years ago)
       3) Public Health Investigation -- John Snow and Cholera (London, 1849 ~ 1954)
    C) Epidemiology
       1) Salmonella outbreak and Investigation (in Minnesota, 1973)
       2) Epidemiology Triangle -- host, agent, environment

III. Kaplan and Health Care Outcomes (Lecture only]
     A) Aspirin Study and Coronary Heart Disease
     B) Cholesterol and Elevated Blood Pressure meds/side effects
     C) Coffee as cause of Death
     C) FOCUS of health care should be on Quality of Life and Life Expectancy (i.e., mortality or death outcomes)

IV. Attitude and Behavior Change/Health Promotion (Chapter 3,4 Taylor, Lecture)
     A) Behavioral Understanding, Prediction, Control
     B) Person/Environment interaction (Behavior is a function of the person x environment)
     C) Issue of Health Habits (hard to change) vs. Attitudes which are changeable
     C) Attitude, Intent, Behavior link
     D) 8 key attitude/behavior change components
     E) What is a Theory?  
          -Lipsey and the Black Box
          -Desirable Qualities of a Theory
     F) Theories/Models/Frameworks
        1) Individual change
             -Health Believe Model
             -Theory or Reasoned Action
             -Theory of Planned Behavior
             -Stages and Process of Change  
        2) Group change
             -Tipping Point (based on Broken Glass Theory)
             -Diffusion of Innovations
                 -Kelly's intervention research on HIV/AIDS and using Opinion Leaders
             -Message Framing (based on Prospect Theory)
                 -Barrett and Marelich research to increase Condom Use
        3) Society Change
             - Barker's Ecological Psychology
             - Social Ecology and Health Promotion (Stokols)

V. Patients in Treatment Settings
    A) How Patients 'enter' or engage the Treatment Setting
         -Recognition of health problems
         -Interpretation of symptoms
    B) Once recognized, now "IN" the Setting
         -Who uses services more?
         -Healthcare service misuse
         -Delay behaviors
    C) Patients in Hospital Settings
         -Changes over time
         -Goals of Hospital
         -Medical/Admin Hierarchy
         -Communication within Hospitals among staff
         -Organizational Constraints
         -Myths, Archetypes, and Organizational Structures (Marelich study)
     D) Treatment/Patient Labels
         -Rosenhan study on being Sane in Insane Places
         -Stickiness of labels
____________________________________________________________
MIDTERM
____________________________________________________________

VI. Stress
   A) Theories of Stress
      -Fight or Flight (Cannon)
      -General Adaptation Syndrome (Selye)
      -Tend and Befriend (Taylor)
      -Psychological Appraisal -- Primary/Secondary (Folkman and Lazarus)
   B) Effects of Exposure to Long Term Stressors
   C) Ways to Assess Stress
   D) Dimensions of Stress
      -Overload
      -Negative Events
      -Uncontrollable Events
      -Ambiguous Events
   E) Stress adaptation -- Individual types (groups) that don't handle stress well
   F) Anticipated stress also an issue
   G) After Effects of Stress (costs)
   H) Life Events and Daily Hassles

VII. Coping
   A) Personality and Coping
      -Negative affect
      -Positivity (pessimistic explanatory style)
      -Optimism
      -Psychological control
      -Resilience
  B) Coping Style
      -Avoidance vs. Approach
      -Problem Solving
      -Emotion focused
   C) Coping Strategies
      -Marelich research on coping with HIV/AIDS (7 strategies)
   D) Social Support
      -Informational
      -Emotional
      -Informational
      -Tangible
   E) Does social support work (yes, generally)
       -moderates stress>>outcome relationship
       -sometimes doesn't work however
   F) Patients and Empowerment
      -Marelich/Murphy research with HIV patients
         -Joint Decision-making
         -Patients taking control
         -Initial passivity then involvement
         -Patients as knowledge gatherers
       -Research by Langer/Rodin on those living in old-age homes

VIII. Alternative Topics in Health Psychology (Marelich text)
    A) Why Mixed Findings in Health Research?
       -Selected Study Participants
       -Study Designs
       -Statistics Used
       -Testimonials

    B) Why do we use Alternative Medications?
       -Current treatments in US
       -Allopathic vs. Alternative Treatment outcomes
       -Barriers to Alternative Medication Use
           -$$ barriers
           -Best practices model for Western Medicine
           -Lack of Funding for research
           -Researcher biases and research paradigms
       -Why is Alternative Medicine attractive?
           -Ease of access
           -Ease of use
           -Ease of getting information
       -Problems with Alternative medicine use
           -unknown risks (Steve Jobs example)
           -questionable viability of information sources
       -What do we do?

C) Culture and Medicine

D) Alternative Explanations



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